According to staggering new statistics from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, roughly one-third of the food produced worldwide for human consumption is lost or wasted, amounting to some 1.3 billion tons a year. In the developing world, more than 40% of food losses occur after harvest — while being stored or transported, and during processing and packing. In industrialised countries, more than 40% of losses occur as a result of retailers and consumers discarding unwanted but often perfectly edible food.
At a time when the land, water and energy resources necessary to feed a global population of 6.9 billion are increasingly limited — and when at least 1 billion people remain chronically hungry — food losses mean a waste of those resources and a failure of our food system to meet the needs of the poor. The Worldwatch Institute’s Nourishing the Planet project is highlighting ways to make the most of the food that is produced and to make more food available to those who need it most.
According to Tristram Stuart, a contributing author of Worldwatch’s “State of the World 2011: Innovations that Nourish the Planet” report, some 150 million tons of grains are lost every year in low-income countries, six times the amount needed to meet the needs of all the hungry people in the developing world. Meanwhile, industrialised countries waste some 222 million tons of perfectly good food every year, a quantity nearly equivalent to the 230 million tons that sub-Saharan Africa produces in a year. Unlike farmers in many developing countries, however, agribusinesses in industrial countries have numerous tools at their disposal to prevent food from spoiling — including pasteurisation and preservation facilities, drying equipment, climate-controlled storage units, transport infrastructure and chemicals designed to expand shelf-life.
“All this may ironically have contributed to the cornucopian abundance that has fostered a culture in which staggering levels of ‘deliberate’ food waste are now accepted or even institutionalised,” writes Stuart in his chapter “Post-Harvest Losses: A Neglected Field”. “Throwing away cosmetically ‘imperfect’ produce on farms, discarding edible fish at sea, over-ordering stock for supermarkets and purchasing or cooking too much food in the home, are all examples of profligate negligence toward food.”
Nourishing the Planet researchers travelled to 25 countries across sub-Saharan Africa, meeting with 350 farmers’ groups, NGOs, government agencies and scientists. The amount of loss we saw is shocking considering that many experts estimate that the world will need to double food production in the next half-century as people eat more meat and generally eat better. It would make good sense to invest in making better use of what is already produced.
“Humanity is approaching — and in some places exceeding — the limits of potential farmland and water supplies that can be used for farming,” notes Worldwatch Institute executive director Robert Engelman. “We’re already facing food price spikes and the early impacts of human-caused climate change on food production. We can’t afford to overlook simple, low-cost fixes to reduce food waste.”
Nourishing the Planet offers the following three low-cost approaches that can go a long way toward making the most of the abundance that our food system already produces. Innovations in both the developing and industrialised worlds include:
Getting surpluses to those who need it
As mountains of food are thrown out every day in the cities of rich countries, some of the poorest citizens still struggle to figure out their next meal. Feeding America coordinates a nationwide network of food banks that receive donations from grocery chains. Florida’s Harry Chapin Food Bank, one of Feeding America’s partners, distributed 5.2 million kilograms of food in 2010. In New York City, City Harvest collects some 12.7 million kilograms of excess food each year from restaurants, grocers, corporate cafeterias, manufacturers and farms and delivers it to nearly 600 New York City food programmes. Similarly, London Street FoodBank utilises volunteers to collect unused food items from London businesses and get them to food banks around the city.
Raising consumer awareness
Those who can easily afford to buy food — and throw it away — rarely consider how much they discard or find alternatives to sending unwanted food to the landfill. In 2010, however, San Francisco became the first city to pass legislation requiring all households to separate both recycling and compost from garbage. By asking residents to separate their food waste, a new era of awareness is being fostered by the initiative. Nutrient-rich compost created by the municipal programme is made available to area organic farmers and wine producers, helping to reduce resource consumption in agriculture. The Love Food Hate Waste website — an awareness campaign of the UK-based organisation Wrap — provides online recipes for using leftovers as well as tips and advice for reducing personal food waste.
Improving storage and processing
In the absence of expensive, Western-style grain stores and processing facilities, smallholders can undertake a variety of measures to prevent damage to their harvests. In Pakistan, the United Nations helped 9% of farmers cut their storage losses up to 70% by simply replacing jute bags and mud constructions with metal grain storage containers. And Purdue University is helping communities in rural Niger maintain year-round cow pea supplies by making low-cost, hermetically sealed plastic bags available through the Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage programme. Another innovative project uses solar energy to dry mangos after harvest. Each year more than 100 000 tons of the fruit go bad before reaching the market in western Africa.
Crossposted from the Worldwatch Institute’s Nourishing the Planet.