Psychological Society of South Africa
Psychological Society of South Africa

Grand racism vs petty racism

By Sduduzo Mncwabe

In South Africa racism and psychology had a difficult marriage consummated by Professor Hendrik Verwoerd in 1948 and dissolved by Professor Sathasivan “Saths” Cooper and company when the Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA) was founded in 1994. As a profession we have gone from having “one of our own” construct the grand system of apartheid, to finally being egalitarian and consistent with the post-1994 Constitution’s non-racialism ideal. Regrettably, racism is often dismissed as a subject of the past and we do not engage it enough; yet, I wish to highlight that psychologists are adequately skilled to play a meaningful role in the quest to deter racism.

Grand racism
Racism is enacted ideology, based on a socio-economic oppression of particular socially constructed groups by a group that deems itself superior and acts to enforce this perceived superiority. Stated differently, racism entails one group violently oppressing other people on the basis that they are lesser beings. Racism is about control, power and money. Race is not just about black and white – think Jewish Germans in Adolf Hitler’s times. However, by all and sundry, the victims of racism in South Africa have always been black people. Any other conceptualisation is erroneous. Slavery, colonialism and apartheid have consistently oppressed the Khoisan, native blacks, Indians initially imported as indentured labourers, and so-called coloured people.

If we accept this definition we can further differentiate between grand racism and petty racism. Grand racism is the superstructure that emanated from grand apartheid legislation that removed land from black hands, blocked their economic pursuits and destroyed their cultural and education prospects. Petty racism is not necessarily inconsequential but it derives its power from the grand system that makes it possible for one to call another by derogatory terms. For this purpose I will ignore petty racism and will not refer to individuals and their social media exploits. They are a symptom and not the root problem.

To understand the impact of racism in South Africa one does well to peruse the tenets of the Freedom Charter. The document is striking in its demand for basic freedoms: work, free association, a place to stay, education, human rights, etcetera. Engaging about racism with no intention of tampering with the economic superstructure is synonymous with farting in the wind.

Racism remains institutionalised in South Africa – even though it is no longer legislated. A brief glance at the statistics indicates that the majority of black people are poor and that white people have higher incomes and lower levels of unemployment. Professor Ruth Hall recently said it would take 144 years to settle all land claims at the current pace. Thus, attempts of redress via affirmative action and black economic empowerment (BEE) have had minimal success.

Curiously a combination of ignorance and supremacist arrogance have some complaining that these policies are racist and serve the interests of black people by unjustly blocking the aspirations of white people. All indications are that this is untrue. Even “broad-based BEE” has not had the intended effect. I await “even broader-based black economic empowerment”! Until then the only complaints we should entertain regarding such redressive policies is that they are not working efficiently enough.

Racism is not a mental illness
In 1992 Jane Elliott, an American teacher and diversity trainer, said “racism is a mental illness. If you judge other people by the colour of their skin, by the amount of a chemical in their skin, you have a mental problem. You are not dealing well with reality”. I think it is important to problematise her statement.
While she acknowledges the power-privilege aspect of racism elsewhere in her work this particular statement warrants at least three critiques:
1. Racism is a learned response. To be dramatic, no white child has exhibited symptoms of anxiety when suckling at a black nanny’s breast.
2. Mental illness can be treated and medicated. I dare you to try treating or medicating racism.
3. If racists are the ill people in all of this and require “help”, do the real victims of racism have any chance of receiving justice?

The above shows that, firstly, contemporary psychology is often an ill-fated attempt to correct social disquiet at an individual level. Black psychologists joining the field often find themselves assimilating to the western ways as opposed to revolutionising the profession. Perhaps social psychology should be studied with enough vigour to infuse the ideas of Ngugi wa Thiong’o, Bantu Biko and Paulo Freire into our analysis, diagnosis and intervention ideas.

Secondly, meaningful interaction lies in psychologists identifying as experts in learning. If we agree with the ideal of education as the ticket out of disenfranchisement it is time we look at Zambia’s diversity studies within their school system and ask why our school system produces people who engage in xenophobia and other hate crimes? Let us engage in matters of policy-making; our research and social science background qualifies us to.

Thirdly, for any meaningful race interventions to be done – reconciliation in its current format, appeasing and obviating the anxieties of the oppressor – must be turned on its head towards a proportionate share of resources. Inequality undermines any talk of non-racialism. Inequality on the basis of race, sex, sexuality, religion and culture remain a stumbling block and we will continue to see the privileged fuel their dominant ideologies. Biko left black people with the arduous task of gifting the country with a more humane face. Needless to say the negotiated transition and reconciliation efforts were benevolent acts to effect change but they have failed dismally as those with the economic power to ensure that the country’s resources are used equitably have stubbornly held on to the ill-gotten gains.

Towards becoming race conscious, not racist
Black people are angry and anger-management tactics won’t pacify us much longer. The source of the problem requires fixing. Topical petty racism is merely highlighted rambunctious mutterings that hide a more serious problem of persisting inequality veiled as the supremacy of whites and inferiority of blacks. The onus is on psychologists and other social scientists to engage in an accurate diagnosis of the problems and start offering alternatives that consider the lived realities of South Africans.

Plans to hold fleeting national debates, patronising #colourblind movements, making party members sign pledges and converting Human Rights Day to an Anti-Racism Day will only serve the purpose of placating people without solving the problem – fixing the symptoms and not tracking the “developmental cause”, to dabble in therapist talk.

To part with a simple matter, each one of us must endeavour to learn to be race conscious and not racist. Sometimes this starts with acknowledging that it is I, as the therapist who does not speak my client’s language, and not the ridiculous insinuation that the service-seeking client does not speak my language.

Sduduzo Mncwabe is a clinical psychologist in public practice who writes in his personal capacity.

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    • Jonathan Haze

      Every the board of every state owned enterprise, from Eskom and SSA down to the smallest, is black. The management of every SOE is black. The entire bloated, overpaid service is black. Ministers and deputy ministers are black. The top management of major corporations are black. The overwhelming majority in parliament is black, making laws forcing white people hand over majority ownership and control of their enterprises to blacks. Making laws of expropriation providing for expropriation without compensation by introducing a new term, “custodianship”. Where, specifically, is this “white privilege”?

      Irrespective of academic achievement, white children struggle to get places at SA universities, such as they are. White children will not easily get jobs at SOEs, in government at any level, unless at the lowest levels without hope of promotion.

      And still you complain. Still the continual vague assertions, as in this article, of white domination, without ever, ever giving any examples. Still you talk about inequality and oppression, without ever indicating any awareness of your black government stealing from your own people.

    • Louise Vanderbilt

      Well, at least some of that anger should be directed at the ANC which has the responsibility for implementing the policies which should have narrowed the gap between black and wealth white by now.

      The vast majority of the electorate in this country is black. You have the power to change things without violence. That is what democracy is all about.

    • Kaybz

      Jonathan Haze, I think it would do you good to educated yourself more about impacts of apartheid as opposed to just giving some superficial analysis based on what you’ve seen at the surface. have you seen other places in South Africa where blacks live in dire poverty before you talk about whites who cannot get so called jobs in their dads companies? Are you aware of the standard of living of the majority of black people who can’t go to school because their uneducated parents (thanks to Bantu education) can’t read,write, count and get jobs to pay for their education.
      its okay to talk about democracy and equality for all whites and blacks but when you say whites are suffering and blacks are well off? Like? what are you on? If you are on drugs, best you tell us coz its the only way we can forgive this absurd comment
      go to cape town or UCT or UP or Stellenbosch if you cannot see this white privilege. The parking lots of these universities are packed with cars that belong to white students even though they remain the minority. just see a bus queue on the road, those are black people who can’t even earn enough to buy or get cars financed how you gon come up here and ask where this white privilege is?
      Go to your Saint Davids, St. Stithians. ST. Andrews and maybe then we can have a different discussion. How are you still asking for examples? it’s in front of you. this isn’t a woods among-st the tree riddle. its in plain sight. Try Sandton, Bryanston, Boksburg, Kylami, Hyde Park, Centurion. Look at the estates and who lives in them compared to who live in shacks? Do you need more examples?? I wish people could open their eyes to the reality of the fact and not be blinded by their own prejudices, pre-conceived misconceptions and lack of knowledge.
      until then, instead of being emotional in your own opinion try being factual.
      As for handing over of onwership? do you even know how BEE works? the state is asking for 25% to go to blacks, coloured and Indians. But what country doesn’t have their own affirmative action going on?
      25% from a minority to a majority is not even enough. and yes it should be given to people who didn’t have access to that economic benefit. considering how white wealth in Africa came about but that’s for your history lesson.
      Our parents who are alive and well are the generation that was told they couldn’t be anything more than cleaners and gardeners. whites today have the freedom to do anything they want but all that is asked is to help those who wouldn’t have that opportunity otherwise and that’s a problem. Its a good thing the majority in government are black because the response from white people shows that nothing would have changed otherwise. thank God that things are under new management.
      the only thing worse than racism is people in denial about racial issues

    • Rory Short

      A good suggestion.

    • Rory Short

      You have identified a blind spot in Sduduzo’s take on the world.

    • RodB

      Here’s a quote that might be of interest – not that those who should most heed what it says, will ever do so…

      ‘You cannot legislate the poor into prosperity by legislating the wealthy out of prosperity. What one person receives without working for, another person must work for without receiving. The government cannot give to anybody anything that the government does not first take from somebody else. When half of the people get the idea that they do not have to work because the other half is going to take care of them, and when the other half gets the idea that it does no good to work because somebody else is going to get what they work for, that my dear friend, is the beginning of the end of any nation. You cannot multiply wealth by dividing it.’ Adrian Pierce Rogers (September 12, 1931 – November 15, 2005), was an American pastor, conservative, author, and a three-term president of the Southern Baptist Convention (1979-1980 and 1986-1988).

    • Rory Short

      “the only thing worse than racism is people in denial about racial issues”

      There is actually something worse than this and it is a mis-diagnosis of the root of the current problems that we are grappling with in our country.

      Apartheid was founded on racism but its long term and most damaging consequence was the sense of utter dis-empowerment suffered by many black people and black communities.

      Apartheid is thankfully gone but that in itself does not automatically reconnect people with their natural sense of self agency. To reconnect with a dis-abled sense of self agency you have to start exercising it in open, equal, competition with everybody else. There actually is no other way.

      The ANC to this day has not recognised this fundamental reality. Its policies, like AA & BEE, have tried to give legislative support to those with a weakened sense of self agency rather than giving people the education and skills needed to engage in open competition with others so that they can naturally recover their natural sense of self agency.

      The ANC’s thinking is in fact tarnished by racism. Racism is when we prioritise a person’s race over their humanity. As human beings we all have to grapple with human problems whatever our skin colour. A lack of a natural sense of self agency is a human problem afflicting some people but it can be fixed no matter how it arose. It is not fixed by providing legislative crutches for people with a weakened sense of self agency, the crutches leave the fundamental problem completely unaddressed.

    • Rory Short

      “Topical petty racism is merely highlighted rambunctious mutterings that
      hide a more serious problem of persisting inequality veiled as the
      supremacy of whites and inferiority of blacks.”

      Exactly, it is not a problem of racism, it is a problem of a lack of education and skills that has aggravated the wealth gap. The ANC in government has had 22 years to fix this problem but because government has been totally pre-occupied with chasing racist bogey men and, under JZ, feathering their own nests far, far, too little has been done to correct this problem in fact it has actually got worse.

    • Aragorn Eloff

      I think it’s a very problematic suggestion actually. It misses the whole point about ‘grand racism’, i.e. structural racism/white supremacy. Even if we pathologized ‘petty racism’ (and pathologizing intolerance is for me a sign of a move towards social conservatism and totalitarianism – look at Oppositional Defiance Disorder in the DSM-5, for example) we miss out on all the larger systemic issues that have much more to do with history, geopolitics and so forth than individuals exhibiting problematic behaviour.

      In fact, the very drive to reduce social reality into the merely interpersonal – into personal moral/psychological failings – betrays a whole lot about other (economic, political, etc.) structural forces that constrain our ability to understand and overcome our current situation.

    • Suntosh Pillay

      Rory, they are not mutually exclusive.

      Economic/material support can be done together with other efforts at ‘re-connection’ with self-agency.

      But let’s not for a moment think that 20+ years will undo 350 years of oppression in a magical swoop!

    • Suntosh Pillay

      Good points Sduduzo. Some of my thoughts:

      We need efforts to deal with both grand and petty racism, because one is structural and one is relational; and both are part of our lived experiences, but with the caution that efforts to deal with petty racism have a feel-good quality that can actually undermine and detract efforts to deal with grand racism (because people confuse ‘getting along’ with an absence of racism). Grand racism is obviously more urgent and more dependent on government intervention, while petty racism is dependent on an active, conscious citizenship.

      Re: Psychology’s role in this, we definitely need to radicalize the profession in two ways:
      1) moving the relevance debate out of the ivory tower and into real spaces in communities etc. A lot of anti-racist work in psychology has remained at the theoretical or for-research-purposes level, to advance careers etc. without making much of an impact in tangible terms for society. But how do we do this?
      2) putting pressure on institutional structures (e.g. Psyssa, HPCSA, provincial bodies, universities, course coordinators, etc.) to ensure that psycho-politics is not a marginal elective module, and that the work of Biko, Fanon etc are part and parcel of standard psychological education.

      The struggle continues.

    • Peter Leyland

      Exactly.
      I still await an answer to the question – what is stopping black South Africans from starting their own businesses, enterprises etc – believe me, there is plenty of money available. Pravin Gordan recently made the point that lack of money is not the problem in SA (referring to poverty and under-development).
      As a percentage of GDP, our expenditure on education is among the highest in the world, with one of the lowest and worst out comes.
      (lack of) money is not the problem! How and where it is spent certainly is.

      Why is it that the spaza shops and small businesses in townships are operated by foreigners? Why are South Africans not opening and running these enterprises?

    • RSA.MommaCyndi

      How does someone become ‘race concious and not racist’ ? How do I look at someone as being ‘other’ and then not treat them as ‘other’ ?

      Whilst I agree that people should be more concious of the challenges that different races face, I certainly do not think that people should judge others based on their skin colour – that is the very definition of racism.

      If I look at a friend, then I see a friend. I do not see an alien being who must be interacted with in a different way or a skin colour that requires me to treat them in some ‘special’ way. We interact as equals with nothing as superficial as skin colour, size of our feet, length of our fingers or colour of our nail varnish, making any difference to the affection that we have for eachother

    • Rory Short

      Exactly! But if you have lost your sense of self agency you then have to vest it in some group or other. People have vested their sense of agency in in the ANC and even if the ANC has proved to be a failure in government they find it almost impossible to divest.

    • Isabella vd Westhuizen

      You have not answered his question. Every major lever of power is now in the hands of the African majority. White people have no meaningful hope of progress in any public institution.
      Yet still there is this incessant anti white diatribe,.
      The reason African education has failed over the last tweet years has been SADTU and its inability to get teachers to actually teach instead of enjoying all the advantages of public service employment without any meaningful input own their part in return

    • Barry Saayman

      “the only thing worse than racism is people in denial about racial issues” – Unknown

      You can say that again.

      “Needless to say the negotiated transition and reconciliation efforts were benevolent acts to effect change but they have failed dismally as those with the economic power to ensure that the country’s resources are used equitably have stubbornly held on to the ill-gotten gains.” – Mr Sduduzo Mncwabe

      No reconciliation, whatever is meant be this term, or lasting peace is possible with the ongoing racist, seditious and communist inspired National Democratic Revolution (NDR).

      Due to the NDR and the current second radical phase of the transition to a so-called national democratic society, “those with the economic power” rather disinvest and export capital as fast as they can. These people have many options and they will do what they feel are best for them and their future and nothing can change this reality.

      I think that is normal behaviour for people that feel unwelcome, unwanted and threatened. Columns such as this one is barely concealed anti-white hate speech and have become the order of the day because whites are in fact in terms of the self-explanatory official SACPANC Strategy and Tactics labelled “colonialists of a special type” and treated by the liberation movement as the “enemy” that must be “eliminated” and “destroyed”:-

      “28. Colonialism of a Special Type contained within itself contradictions that could not be resolved through reform. It had to be destroyed. As such, the system we seek to create will stand or fall on the basis of whether it is able to eliminate the main antagonisms of this system…………

      96. The liberation movement defined the enemy, on the other hand, as the system of white minority domination with the white community being the beneficiaries and defenders of this system. These in turn were made up of workers, middle strata and capitalists. Monopoly capital was identified as the chief enemy of the NDR.”

      I wish someone will explain to me how one destroy so-called colonial systems, whatever that may be, without touching the people including children in those systems.

      Being treated as the enemy by your own duly elected government whilst one is in fact a decent, law-abiding, productive and taxpaying citizen is totally unacceptable.

      I wonder how Mncwabe would react under similar conditions.

      “Engaging about racism with no intention of tampering with the economic superstructure is synonymous with farting in the wind.”

      The NDR seeks to destroy white capital and the consequences are dire. The old dictum – don’t cut off your nose to spite your face – springs to mind.

      The further mass displacement of the white minority seems unavoidable at this stage. Hundreds of thousand whites have already left and more whites are in my opinion destined to leave South Africa permanently. That will satisfy the proponents of the NDR such as Mncwabe.

      “Engaging about racism with no intention of tampering with the economic superstructure is synonymous with farting in the wind.”

      The “economic superstructure” that enrages Mncwabe is ably destructed by the NDR. That should make him feel better. But this destruction is obviously not going to decrease unemployment, inequality, disease, squalor or poverty. The contrary is truer.

      “Racism remains institutionalised in South Africa – even though it is no longer legislated. A brief glance at the statistics indicates that the majority of black people are poor and that white people have higher incomes and lower levels of unemployment.”

      Mncwabe seems to be oblivious of the mounting social problems in white communities and that racism is still institutionalised and legislated in South Africa in support of the NDR. This is how the late Dr Mario Ambrosini MP articulated this reality-

      “I know of no other cases in a democracy in which a large majority made it legally mandatory to discriminate against a small minority, save for Malaysia which prompted the Chinese to leave it to form Singapore. When affirmative action is for the benefit of a minority, its effects can be absorbed without the majority being discriminated against, but with our percentages and with the modalities of our BBBEE, radical discrimination ensues.

      This mandatory legal discrimination is meant to apply on a purely racial and not economic basis, leaving no hope for the about 760,000 whites who in the past 19 years have moved from a dignified life into squatter camps and below the poverty line. What policy justification can there be to discriminate against them?………

      As it is morally repugnant, undemocratic and unconstitutional to hold children responsible for their fathers’ alleged or actual crimes, or ascribe collective culpability, what are the policy bases to discriminate again them?”

      The Constitution, 1996 are rightfully transformative. The peace accord of the early 1990’s is in my view accurately described by the Constitution, 1993:-

      “The pursuit of national unity, the well-being of all South African citizens and peace require reconciliation between the people of South Africa and the reconstruction of society.

      The adoption of this Constitution lays the secure foundation for the people of South Africa to transcend the divisions and strife of the past, which generated gross violations of human rights, the transgression of humanitarian principles in violent conflicts and a legacy of hatred, fear, guilt and revenge.

      These can now be addressed on the basis that there is a need for understanding but not for vengeance, a need for reparation but not for retaliation, a need for ubuntu but not for victimisation.”

      The NDR and its racist exponents are unfortunately victimising whites and in the process they are damaging the South African economy. They are a threat to this peace accord and out to spoil everything for everybody in South Africa on their way to a communist society.

      “Black people are angry and anger-management tactics won’t pacify us much longer. The source of the problem requires fixing.”

      As I understand it anger, hate and resentment are strong and self-destructive emotions.

      Who is responsible for these “anger-management tactics” and the pacification of resentment and hate filled black people? Will “they” read this column and do something more constructive about the conflict caused by the ongoing NDR? I don’t think so. I think “they” in fact doesn’t exist. It is merely a figment of Mncwabe’s very active imagination.

      And make no mistake. Some whites are also very angry and resentful. Others fear for their lives. Columns like this one may make the authors feel better but it also increase the prevailing negative feelings of alienation exponentially.

      Being covertly, overtly and relentlessly victimised, insulted and provoked by a Holier-than-thou tyrannical majority that mistakenly believe that they collectively occupy the moral high ground and therefore can dictate everything to everybody is not in the least funny.

      “The onus is on psychologists and other social scientists to engage in an accurate diagnosis of the problems and start offering alternatives that consider the lived realities of South Africans.”

      Good idea. However, any diagnoses that ignore the destructive NDR and the feelings of the people affected by it cannot be accurate.

    • Kaybz

      Black economic Empowerment is not about asking the other half to give to the lazy half. Hence I stress, people need to educate themselves on what these affirmative actions are and not arrive to conclusions on some half baked idea about what it is.
      You want to acknowledge apartheid that took place well over 4 decades and affected generations. then acknowledge the fact that the effects are still felt today in South Africa. I do not benefit from BEE as I am not South African by birth. Under apartheid whites enjoyed many benefits and got a leg up in the economy. when SA became a democratic country there was no other way than to make it legislation to introduce blacks (who were too late and too under resourced) to that economy, because it never would have been done otherwise. Not many people who benefited under the old regime wouldv’e taken it upon themselves to educate the blacks (that is the ugly truth) and its seen today by many white people’s dislike for BEE and many have voted against it with very little knowledge of it. Why would you not want to empower those who were discriminated against for years? its about rectifying the imbalance of the past.
      I personally think it takes a very greedy person to think that something like BEE is legislating the wealthy out of prosperity? I mean what is that? this so called wealth you talk of that is “blood money “wealth”. when you examine the reality of the 1% in S.A and the millions who live in struggle because they lack access to the economy mainly due to apartheid , you won’t help but feel that BEE is almost a joke. It asks for very little. It’s not the end all be all solution but it definitely got people doing something.
      Take a tour around SA, you’ll see people who can’t read or write. these are not our ancestors, these are our parents generations. that’s how effected we still are by it.
      When people start Acknowledging that reality. Then we can move forward. But if we stay in denial and talk about “our wealth” we find ourselves 100 steps backwards. Because it was that “lets’keep wealth” mentality and behavior that started the damn segregation.

    • Kaybz

      How is it an equal competition when others got years and years of training and privileges and resources and all that? so those who wouldn’t qualify should just join the race and set themselves up for failure.
      if it was about just letting everyone join the economy just as they were, then I’d probably be cleaning someone’s bathroom for a living. Coz God knows blacks would’ve lost that race.

    • TerminalA

      “A brief glance at the statistics indicates that the majority of black
      people are poor and that white people have higher incomes and lower
      levels of unemployment”

      and yet you somehow miss the glaring fact that there are 44 million black people compared to 4 million white people……. OF COURSE the statistics are going to be in favour of the lower number……… for every one white person that is employed there has to be 10 black people employed and there arent enough companies or positions available to cover the ever growing black population, yet they are waiting for white people to employ them. Why are we not seeing a growing black industry in SA, why arent more and more black people starting businesses using government funding…?

    • TerminalA

      really, i visited stellenbosch (on my way to franschoek) on my trip to CT. We parked and walked near the uni buildings and i saw (in the hour we walked down the streets outside the uni grounds) more then a dozen black students driving cars out of the grounds. You are being racist by implying that ALL cars parked on the uni grounds only belong to whites………

    • TerminalA

      350 years of oppression?

    • Sifiso Xolile Ndlovu Zgwanyanw

      More that a dozen black students driving! That settles it then, white privilege is a myth because 10 black kids are driving cars!

    • Sifiso Xolile Ndlovu Zgwanyanw

      I think most people know and appreciate the failings of ANC. However, blaming 22 years of ANC rule for the staggering inequality and poverty the world have ever seen is plain ridiculous. Generations of apartheid did so much physical, emotional, psychological and economic damage to a majority of poor and marginalised people in South Africa. Persisting inequality and the huge wealth gap in South Africa is not because the minority is educated and the rest are not; that is more ridiculous!

    • Sifiso Xolile Ndlovu Zgwanyanw

      Please direct me to where this ‘plenty of money’ is so I can start my own business. Also, it would really help if you quantify ‘plenty of money’ in Rands, and also provide a break down of how this ‘plenty of money’ can be divided among black South Africans who qualify to access it. Thanks.

    • TerminalA

      “The parking lots of these universities are packed with cars that belong to white students even though they remain the minority”
      even though i saw black students driving out of the campus parking lots…. nice that you missed my point totally.

    • ian shaw

      Kaybz, you have not given answer to the specific points raised by Jonathan Haze.. Namely, the entire ruling structure in government, civil service,, management of all state owned enterprises, top management of all major enterprises, ministers and deputy ministers , national management of economic decision making bodies, SARS, SAA, Eskom, Reserve Bank, most of Parliament, are all black. Undeniable. So why are they doing such a bad job that keeps re-creating poverty? No one says that such people should be only cleaners and gardeners, but now, under “new management”, they are in the position to change things. Is this really happening? Are black communities protesting violently against “privileged whites”? No, they are protesting against the “new management” of blacks.

    • ian shaw

      Kaybz: please tell me how to make up for the lack of training and education which provides advantages to those who have had it? Expropriating what they have or educating those who have not had it?

    • divvie

      From official population statistics I got the impression that the black middle class (those who had motor cars, houses, good education for their offspring, etc…) was bigger than the entire white population of 5.1M. I also notice that the above article offers no statistics or facts to back up his thesis. So…a manufactured diatribe it is.