Gillian Schutte
Gillian Schutte

Unpacking the discourse of domination

Over this past year I have written a series of essays that attempt to deconstruct the “discourse of domination” and have provided the links to these articles in this piece. These essays were written in response to a series of racialised events that happened in South Africa in 2012 — occurrences, which I posit, are indicative of the possibility that the master narrative is showing signs of cracking up and being rendered irrelevant by an escalating alternative narrative that embraces diversity and provides the multilayered perspective, which the dominant discourse has, throughout modern history, sought to obliterate.

Perhaps this would explain the fear-based and vociferous racist and patriarchal defensiveness that appears in the commentary below the online blogs that advocate an alternate vision. It seems the more that this narrow worldview is called out as abnormal and challenged, the more hateful and ineffectual this commentary becomes.

Alternative and diverse language and free speech has a way of destabilising the discourse of domination.

This diverse alternative narrative is not new. It has always been there, struggling to breathe under the thumb of the dominant discourse. But I believe that it is fast gaining momentum and this is what has the haters running scared and reaching for their toxic arsenal of hate speech to try and defend their assumed “god-given” privilege to own the status quo.

I foresee a revolutionary language movement that deconstructs the lexis of domination, in which the paradigm of white “culture” claiming all the power to define the world, is finally undone.

But what is this discourse of domination?

Writer Richard Dyer, in his book White, contends that white culture possesses the power to “colonise” the definition of normal with respect to race, class, gender, heterosexuality and nationality. Ruth Frankenberg, in her writing on race matters, refers to whiteness as a “set of locations that are historically, politically, and culturally produced and intrinsically linked to unfolding relations of domination”. John Gabriel, posits in his book Whitewash, that a number of elements form the construction of “whiteness” through the systems of representation in the dominant culture. These include the print and electronic media, advertising, and education. He goes on to describe these elements as the capacity of “whiteness” not to be named and thus to remain invisible. He also speaks about the means by which phenomena, which are the product of social and cultural processes (such as high crime rates) come to be spoken of as an inherent trait in certain race groups. Lastly he points to the ways in which white Anglo-European beliefs, values, traditions and practices are assumed to be common to all people, a strategy that is used, often unconsciously, to defend and maintain white power and privilege as the master narrative.

Drawing from Frances Henry’s writings on racial profiling in Toronto and the discourses of domination, the gatekeepers of the master narrative include the judicial system, the media, the caretakers of knowledge and academia and the private sector.

The whitewashed lens that dominates these societal purveyors of discourse is still in place and it is this worldview that plays a critical role in shaping issues and in identifying the boundaries of “legitimate” discourse.

The dominant discourse is precisely that which uses its immense power to interpret and explicate major social, political, and economic issues and events according to its own construction. It is through this framework for example, that a black response to racism is often called “illegitimate and irrational”. By white folk calling it so, it ensures that only whiteness is seen as stable and legitimate.

When Marikana happens or the black president’s penis is exposed in “white political satire” the social conversation or debate is still largely framed within a white master narrative and presided over by the societal machinery that interprets it for the layman. The layman then reinterprets it through the common-sense everyday belief system into a less erudite but no less privileged white discourse. The manifestation of this common-sense discourse is largely seen in the narrow racially biased public commentary around these events.

While many will argue vehemently that the dominant discourse in South Africa is no longer one of white against black but one of the corporate and political elite against the citizen — I argue that this is not entirely the case in South Africa because, nearly 20 years into a democracy, the dominant discourse remains in the grip of a white and largely male elite. I draw on the current leftist argument that those with political power have merely adopted the discourse of domination to suit their own greedy agendas and have thus been coerced into protecting the whiteness construct. In this leftist framework it is argued that those individuals who make up our ruling elite are no more than the puppets of white capital and the managers of the white corporate privilege, paid off in minority shares to act as a buffer zone between the people and the elite.

This creation of a black elite was a cunning move on behalf of white capital, since it ensures that only a black face is demonised in social ruptures and provides protection and disguise for the white corporate elite who skulk in the black man’s shadow in order to remain invisible and blame-free.

The absurd spectacle of our black leadership posturing a discourse that is representative of independence and black pride while remaining obedient to the master narrative and using the master’s tools to brutalise a disenfranchised majority, thus plays itself out to effectively prove to whiteness that it alone is “just and rational” and, in this worldview, blackness remains a violent, irrational and laughable entity.

This is particularly seen in the “satire” of the likes of Murray and Zapiro, whose relentless use of imagery steeped in the colonial constructs of the inept buffoonish inefficient black minstrel and oversexed black male sexual deviant, speaks volumes about the inherent superiority white males feel over blackness.

The same discourse of domination was revealed around the heinous Marikana massacre when the media pushed the story of the strikers as armed and dangerous, in attack mode and smeared with muti that would protect them from the enemy. Thus they were depicted as irrational, savage and a danger to all. A demonised rendering of normal family working-class men served to justify the massacre and maintain white power and privilege.

But not without using the black man as the fall guy. After all, it was largely black policemen who did the shooting and the awful truth of Cyril Ramaphosa’s “baas” correspondence with his white business partners also provided a useful catalyst to pin the entire debacle onto a black face.

Not that Ramaphosa was innocent. He deserves to be exposed by the media for seemingly sanctioning the heinous act of the massacre. But surely then, the white masters who hand him the crumbs from their banquet table in the form of hefty minority shares, are indeed the monster controllers in this hierarchy of elitism that insists that a bought-off state uses draconian measures against the cheap, black labour force to protect their majority capital. Surely they should be equally crucified by the media. Both roles are repulsive, individualistic and ultimately anti the collective.

When we observe the power-based response to the One in Nine Campaign’s political stunt at the Gay Pride march we witnessed the unfolding of the common-sense element of white privilege. These perpetrators of violence towards the black lesbian and gender non-conforming protestors, were not mining magnates, political leaders or chief executives of multinationals. They were ordinary white, moderate, liberal citizens who happen to belong to the LGBTI community. But their white privilege became evident and exposed in their aggressive handling of the protestors and their unrepentant discourse in the media after the fact — in which they continued to admonish the protestors for not asking permission, as if this justified their racist and brutal physical handling of them. Again, the message was clear. White is right.

In a racialised society like ours “whiteness” pervades the reality of daily experience, and this construct is woven into the invisible fabric of the dominant culture. Hence it very often does not occur to the public that these acts of violence against black people or people of colour, or lesbians and transsexual individuals, or marginalised women, or any people that fall outside of the white patriarchal mainstream, are intrinsically wrong, often illegal and a gross breach of human rights — even when the violence is not perpetrated by themselves directly.

I contend again though, that we are moving into an epoch where this narrow discourse of domination will eventually be rendered irrelevant and powerless. It will be eventually be critiqued into nothingness. This will happen through the deconstruction of the discourse that upholds this belief system. It will happen through people’s movements, which will demand equality for all. It will happen through open and diverse voices taking over public podiums en masse and challenging a construct that seeks to dehumanise all those who do not fit into the narrow confines of a white phallocratic worldview.

It has already begun.

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    • Max

      Gillian, thank you for that link in your recent comment. I really found myself identifying strongly with Vincent Calabrese’s response to the article. He is a Jew. I am not. I guess this means it is possible for a Jew and a Gentile to collude and backslap together in their mutual whiteness and band together in evil racism?

    • Momma Cyndi

      Sterling Ferguson

      I disagree.
      Call a mainland Greek a Sicilian or a Sicilian a Turk and see what the reaction is.
      Call a French man a Belgium or an American a Canadian and sparks fly.
      The Gypsy/Rom are discriminated against despite the fact that they were there first and redheads get their fair share of flak.

      Humans are inherently not very social people – regardless of what colour they are

    • Richard

      @Sterling, coffee is indigenous to South America, as is cocoa. That these crops are now grown in Africa is because Europeans brought them to Africa from South America, as the climate was considered propitious. Similar to tea in India; it was taken there from China by British tea-farmers. These crops are now major exports for African countries and India.

    • ntozakhona

      Momma Cindy, Momma Cindy, Momma Cindy…! No, Africans discuss a lot, they have issues that they raise and feel passionate about. They have preferences about who should lead them and how but all that is ignored by those who think that they and only they are the ”public”.” Public” opinion does not care that Zuma’s leadership of the ANC, has for instance, been endorsed by 66% of the population in the last general election.

      Is it so difficult to understand the critique of such a discourse?

      Sterling your attempts at trivialising slavery is proof that you had become something else. I am not sure if you can be helped. You cannot blame apartheid or genocide on the fact that there were collaborators from the ranks of the oppressed. How more cruel can we really be?

    • Sterling Ferguson

      @Ngunie, Gilliam has a right to express her opinion just like you have the right to express your opinion. However, what worry me is the historical facts not being used to formulate her article about white domination. The West embraced science and technology to enable them to dominate the world and not their color. Japan was able to copy this system and became one of them. Now, other countries are embracing science and technology and becoming like the West. The problem with Africa, their leaders don’t seem to understand the importance of science and technology. There is no reason why the blacks that make up 80% of the population in SA should be concerned about what ten percent think about them.

      The only reason you are concerned is because of black Africa’s love and hate relations with whites. Many blacks in Africa think that the blacks in Africa can’t run nothing and don’t want the whites to leave. It most of black Africa, the governments will not build decent hospitals and when one of their elites get sick, they will go overseas for medical treatment.

    • Sinenhle

      Gillian, what you are saying, we have not healed.If white NP and DA etc could come to the fore and apologise.You see, when ever the DA critisize Zuma, to me it brings back those memories of being haunted in my own country.I just feel like defending Zuma with all I am.Whites cannot suddenly blame us whereas they killed everything human in us and we were expected to play to the galary of world-opinion as a loving country. It is too soon for DA who are lead by a Liberal who pretends to know Biko and how we feel.Our youth years were lost.Parental years missed.We did not burry our parents.Madoda.The preference would have been war than peace.It cannot be swept under the carpet and pretend it was just a passing cloud and then they strip our President naked and pin him on Newspapers! Then they think we are to feel honoured? Guys no!!

    • Sterling Ferguson

      @Ntozakhona, the history of modern Africa started with the slave trade and the Africans traded off their people to the Europeans and Arabs for peanuts. The history of the US and Brazil, slavery played a big part in their birth. For a long time both the US and Brazil tried to keep slavery out of their history books but, the ancestor of these slaves fought to have it put in their history books. In black Africa, the people along with their government are in denial that the Africans traded off their people. One of the few writers in black Africa that has been willing to talk about slavery is Moeletsi Mbeki in his book “Architects of Poverty”. The history of modern African didn’t start with colonialism like a lot of African leaders want you to believe. You shouldn’t allow yourself to be brainwashed and should be searching for the truth. Only the truth will set you free. I hope you have a happy Kwanzaa.

    • Exhausted

      It strikes me that one of the more valid observations from this blog relates not so much to the topic, which could be whether the earth is flat or round as far as most people are concerned, but the moral dilemma and battle presented to the writer. I have a sense that the writer started with basically good intentions, to promote black people and culture, and to speak against discrimination. Unfortunately I also sense that the writer had a moral choice to make – to take a reasonable, sensible approach, or to adopt an aggressive, hysterical, combative and generalised anti-white racist line which basically is as morally rotten as the people she accuses of equal malice. The sad part is that the writers worst side, or immoral side, seems to have won the battle, and rather than reflecting and responding to the topic, she has chosen to become even more strident and aggressive. It reminds me a bit of a church dogmatist in the Middle Ages who first declares the world is flat and then when challenged becomes aggressive and calls for any critics to be burned at the stake. The sad part is I beleive the person who has lost most morally in all of this is the writer herself, whom I beleive is not basically an evil person and whom I think is as aware as anyone else of this moral test that she has faced, and in which she has chosen a course which is not on the side of goodness, fairness or righteousness.

    • Sterling Ferguson

      @Richard, I hope you don’t get Cociane and Cocao mixed up. Speakin of Coffee, this commodity was brought to Brazil.

    • Sterling Ferguson

      @Momma Cyndi, many of the towns in Sicilian were founded by the Greek traders just like in other cities in Europe. In the US many people in the US were born in Canada and have relatives living in the US and it’s no big deal. Nobody flips out like you might call it. The people in SA are a hundred years behind most of the multi-culture countries. The people in Europe all called themselves Europeans. The people in N America and Canada all call themselves Americans.

    • Sterling Ferguson

      @Ntozakhona, why are you still talking about the last so called election in SA when nobody was elected to office. The system in SA isn’t like Ghana where the president and members of parliament are all elected by the people. Ghana is a democracy and you shoulds go to that country to see how democracy works.

    • Mike

      @Richard:””@Sterling, coffee is indigenous to South America, as is cocoa….” apart from your comment being way off the point, you also err: coffee originated in Ethiopia; so one is left wondering as the historical accuracy of the rest of your post.
      Asides from that, the tone of same, goes a long way to supporting the writer QED.

    • ntozakhona

      Sterling I requested you to provide me with the blog where you explained how the system you wish to import is not going to silence the noisy and mad voices of the minority in South Africa. Well, the blog in which you claim to have responded to my concerns.

      Do you even know that the European elites and their subjects prefer to be taken to Cuban hospitals for medical attention? I suppose for you ignorance is bliss.

    • ntozakhona

      Sterling you assume that Africans do not know or refuse to admitt that there have always been collaborators in their own oppression. Slavery, colonialism, apartheid and in the case of Namibia, Nazism have always had their Chief Matanzimas and Redi Tlhabis but does not mean that Africans were the authors of those diabolical systems. Sies!

    • Momma Cyndi


      I’m not criticizing the discourse, I am only trying to figure out why one discourse is more important to you than another. Is the whole idea of discussion not to attempt to see perspective from other people? Or is it simply to find people who agree with you and only speak to them?

      I think you may find that people voted for the ANC and not for Zuma.

    • Dave Harris

      Another excellent analysis of the toxicity of the “discourse of domination” that tarnishes every aspect of our diverse nation and touches almost every sphere of our lives.

      Remember, unlike the Nazis who has to hastily formulate quick exit strategies at the end of WW2, our apartheid regime had many years to prepare when the end of apartheid was in sight e.g.
      – morphing into the DA (National Party 2.0) which now masquerades as the self-proclaimed “opposition”
      – dominance of corporate mainstream media where African culture is constantly marginalized while black elder statesmen are demeaned using the politics of character assassination
      – the creation of a slew of secretly funded NGOs, one of the root causes of corruption in developing nations, that abusing our judicial resources .

      The “discourse of domination” needs to be dismantled one myth at a time by reforming education and mainstream media, embracing indigenous cultures, overhauling our judiciary and speeding up land reform. To this end, many important bills currently wending their way through our legislature are crucial to stabilizing and strengthening our democracy in spite of the underhanded tactics by the usual suspects to slow progress of these bills.

    • Guinness Holic

      The definition of hate-speech appears to be anything that disagrees with a Left winger’s warped views.

      But what EXACTLY is ‘Whiteness’ according to you Gillian? The rule of law? Social order and cohesion? Respect for the individual? The right to progress, work, live and generally behave like a model citizen as long as it does not impede on the rights of others? And if you do manage to pull off the anti-rhetoric-pro-logic impossible by explaining this definition, can we then assume that there must be a ‘Blackness’? And if so, can we assume that in the event that Whiteness becomes inconsequential (as you believe) and irrelevant, that it will be replaced with a new – improved – dominant culture of Blackness? If so, please define this for us mere hoi-polloi.

      We received a nice note commenting on our Whiteness yesterday from none less than Pres. Zuma. It seems that this ‘Whiteness’ lark is catching on, and worthy of some criticism. Whites seem to look after their pets and he takes issue with this. (A quick read up of the link between those who abuse animals and psychotic behaviour might be worthy of some of his Std 2 time).

      But when called up on this ringing endorsement of Blackness, his patsy comes quickly to his defense and blames – you guessed it – WHITES! Not only that, they’ve conjured up mystery whites who drive in the rain with blacks in the rear of the bakkie with pets in the front seat.

      Liars and race-hate-stirrers. And promoted by Gillian.

    • Moeletsi

      Somebody should do a quick wiki search about the origins of coffee. Will it really hurt to find out that coffee is actually an indigenous AFRICAN plant first discovered in Ethiopia? Sigh! The history of modern African began with slavery? Really? How did slavery modernize us? I am curious. Modern USA and Brazil most certainly can trace their economic growth to the slave trade. Without African slaves, I wonder what either nation and the European “parent nation” of the slavers and slave owners would be like today if they had not depended on African slaves to advance their economies and racist based political systems. Can we stop this nonsense talk about white superiority and then proceed to use all sorts of inventions to “prove”‘ white superiority? It might be good for somebody’s ego but it is rather tiresome for many of us and it actually mirrors the intellectually impaired rantings of Zuma. One wonders if Zuma will be transferring our capital cities to Umtata, Ulundi and perhaps Polokwana and he will be travelling on horse or donkey back or maybe cattle driven wagon because Pretoria, Cape Town and Bloemfontein are so called Euro cities. Armani suits are so unAfrican and weating those expensive snake skin Italian shoes is a disgrace to uBuntu. Motor vehicles when Africans have freely roamed the land – on foot? This has nothing to do with racial superiority. Its called innovation, industrialization, globalization and merely informs the reality or human…

    • Moeletsi

      Gillian is brave to tell it like it is – especially given that she is a product of white privilege and therefore knows it better than I ever could. I raise my hat off to her. There should be places where rationale discourses ought to happen while also NOT sugarcoating the insulting and embarrassing comments from our President. This is possible and shouldn’t become some superiority contest but an honest look at how a racially constructed state responds to the end of racism. What do we have in its place if anything and how is what we have constructive or destructive. Perhaps rationale recommendations can come out of such discourses. After all, the deconstruction, reconstruction and rebuilding of a new South Africa ought to be in all of our interests if we indeed claim to be South Africans.

    • ntozakhona

      Moeletsi the task of any revolutionary is to identify the main contradiction at a given time in a historical process and develop a line to resolve it. I often wonder what the anti-Zuma brigade deem to be the main contradiction in South Africa today, Zuma or the continued exclusion of the African majoriy from meaningful economic participation resulting in the devastating troika of unemployment, poverty and inequality. I wonder.

      It is the nature of the characteristically deceitful dominant discourse to twist the words spoken by liberation fighters ”to make a trap for fools”. Capitals in Umtata etc really? We dare not ridicule the concept of rural development lest we have recreated ourselves in the image of our oppressors. When Motlanthe was briefly the President of South Africa he got a taste of the vengeful dominant discourse when his private life became a subject of mirth, myth and mystery.Well, enjoy the distraction and diversion.

    • ntozakhona

      Momma Cyndi it is refered to as dominant precisely because it is intolerant of and suppresses any other views. Other views are tribal, ridiculous or backward. Africans cannot express even a desire to retain aspects of their character building ways of life within the context of industrialised and technologically advancing world, they are intellectually impaired if they do so.They worship ancestors you see?

    • ntozakhona

      Sinenhle, I cannot agree more. I might have prefered someone different from the one you prefered as the symbol (President) of our main liberation movement but we must never ever lose sight of the real issues or allow ousselves to be distracted.

      The youth years we spent being teargassed en masse and being exposed to beatings would all been in vain if we are today find common cause with people who stripped our fathers naked at employment agencies and noe are stripping the President naked. It was in the name of health check, now it is in the name of artistic expression. It is a pity a boKleva have been so assimilated that they are blind to neo-colonialism.

    • ntozakhona

      Momma Cindy the only politician I see on the faces worn by grannies, young people and others in the townships are those of Zuma as a symbol of the ANC. In any case I said they endorsed his leadership of the ANC. How we phrase what we say makes so much difference to those who read with understanding.

    • Richard

      @Mike, @Sterling, I was referring in fact to the family of which coffee is a part. Coffea Arabica is indeed believed to originate in Africa. Rubiaceae, of which coffee is a part, are predominantly found in Venezuela and Colomiba. Apologies for the confusion. However, my point remains: commercial growing of these crops (even coffea arabica), which has had tremendous benefit to Africa, occurred as a consequence of European farmers.

    • ntozakhona

      The dominant discourse

      Zuma says that Africans do not sleep with dogs, walk them and treat them better than human beings. If we were colonised by East Asians he probably would have added that they do not eat dogs and rats.

      The dominant discourse then twist that to mean Zuma has said Africans should reject technology and industrialisation, that Africans ill treat animals and do not own dogs.

      Get the drift Momma Cindy?

      I wonder about Zwelinzima Vavi, he should have posted a picture of him carrying his niece or grandchild not a dog. Our boys are the ones that carry dogs, we carry children. Dogs swoon over us as in the Mandela picture.

    • Lennon

      @ Sterling: The tech might not be here at the moment, but the money can be found. The recent talk by the ANC of possibly jacking up taxes on mining could be the trick to funding our tech development.

      While Zuma might not have much to say on science and tech, Naledi Pandor has been working her arse off to change this. One might ask what good a telescope would do, but it’s a start and as long as the government has ministers like Pandor, perhaps we might pull ourselves out of the quagmire.

      Protectionist economic policies would go a long way to help with that.

    • Lennon

      @ Gillian: What would it take for an individual such as myself to meet whatever standard is required in order to lose the white / male / domination monicker?

      To put it in context: I’m a white male. I was born in South Africa. The closest I have been to going overseas was my trip to Robben Island. The only places that I am interested in visiting (if and when I can scrape the cash together) are Meso-American sites like Macchu Pichu and Vilcabamba.

      Apart from enjoying dry British humour; sci-fi / fantasy stories; Guiness and vodka, I cannot identify myself as being European. My maternal great grandfathers deportation from Ireland for opposing British rule also counts against that.

      My dislike of Western military and economic encroachment in Africa (as anyone who knows me will confirm) is vociferous and venom-laden. Not even Dave Harris could match me on this. My dislike of Chinese encroachment in Africa less so, but only because they have not yet bombed anyone or overthrown any governments.

      I attended a convent school until Std 5 and so didn’t grow up in an all-white environment. In fact both my brother and I remain mystified to this day at the (not always so subtle) racial polarisation we saw upon entering high school. There were two reason for attending the convent school: 1) My mom is Catholic 2) My old man, who like both my brother and I is not religious (ironic), didn’t care for all-white schools and wanted to avoid us being brainwashed… (cont)

    • Lennon

      (cont)… into Nat Party drones. Having been in the army himself, I’m sure he was onto something here. The result is that neither my brother nor I have ever felt out of place around anyone whose skin colour is different (hell, my brother has been mistaken for an English-speaking Middle Easterner on many occasions).

      If I was asked to identify myself, the only answer that I could honestly give would be that I am African. If asked where my loyalties lie I can only answer that this would be with Africa, specifically South Africa.

      The irony in all of this, is that it was an American TV show called Star Trek (Deep Space 9, specifically) which had the greatest influence on who I am today.

      I am who and what I am and both of my middle fingers will readily respond to any personal attacks which result from my post. However, anything constructive would be most welcome. :)

    • Sterling Ferguson

      @Moeletsi, the slave trade opens Africa up to the world and gave them access to goods that they had never seen before. The slave trade created tribal warfare and whole ethnic groups were wiped out in Africa. The problem with the slave trade, it made Europe and the new world rich but in Africa, the people got very little. You should read how the Triangle trade impacted many countries in Europe.

    • Sterling Ferguson

      @Ntozakhona, the medical treatment in Cuba is not superior to the US, Canada, England, Germany or France. As a matter of facts, the US is providing medical aid to Cuba by allowing them to purchase drugs in the US. The point that I was making, these Africa countries should be building a top of the line hospital so they don’t have to go overseas for medical treatment. Look at what Santo’s daughter has done in Angola, she has built all of these high rise apartments and nobody can afford to stay in them.

    • ntozakhona

      Sterling you have developed and earned yourself a reputation as someone not familiar with facts and likes to creating concocting own versions of the truth.Even those inclined to bash the ANC with you find your inaccuracies intolerable.

      Africa had developed its own technologies even during the era in which Europeans were living in caves. The Kingdom of Monomptapa, the Great Makoko, Mapubhugwe were great productive centres that attracted Arab and Chinese traders. Granted Europeans produced a more efficient technology in the taking of lives and war.

      The US has embargoed Cuba since the Bay Of Pigs incident and the claims you are making are simply ridiculous.

    • ntozakhona

      Sterling you have developed and earned yourself a reputation as someone not familiar with facts and likes to creating concocting own versions of the truth.Even those inclined to bash the ANC with you find your inaccuracies intolerable.

      Africa had developed its own technologies even during the era in which Europeans were living in caves. The Kingdom of Monomptapa, the Great Makoko, Mapubhugwe were great productive centres that attracted Arab and Chinese traders. Granted Europeans produced a more efficient technology in the taking of lives and war.

      The US has embargoed Cuba since the Bay Of Pigs incident and the claims you are making are simply ridiculous. please read

    • Fadeel Hassen

      Interesting article. The more I learn about human flaws, the more I realise how little I know about anthropology!

      I guess then the challenge is to remain righteous to all creation.

      Then again, one might ask, RIGHTEOUS by whose standards, white mans, black mans, West or East?